Oct. 7, 2019
HILARY: Hexagram 43 is called 夬, guai, which is generally understood to mean‘decision’ or ‘resoluteness’ or ‘breakthrough’. The oldest forms of the character show a hand holding up an object, a token of authority, perhaps, or an archer’s thumb ring. In some early versions of the character, it’s quite clearly a drawing of a hand with a thumb ring:
Nowadays, the word for an archer’s ring is jue, 玦, formed by combining guai with the ‘jade’ radical.
The Wings (Tuanzhuan, Zagua and Xugua) agree, though, that 夬 means jue 决: a word that combines guai with the ‘water’ radical and means decide, breakthrough, breach (of a dike), certainty, execution. This, they say, is what the solid lines of the hexagram are doing to the one broken line at the top: ‘taking decisive action’ against it (Lynn).
penannular jade ring 玦 jué
决 jué as in 决定 juédìng ‘decide’ is a cognate word
夬 guài 'Split decision', is just a slight variation of jué
In ancient times the jué symbolized authority, or cutting off a relationship. An archer’s thumbring was also called a 玦 jué.
Meanings: the finger which loosens the bow: cutting loose or cutting off, resolute, decisive. Karlgren: “the bursting loose of the bow string”.
From 廴 ‘journey’ and 壬, which represents a 人 person standing on the 土 ground.
Trigram Heaven below or inside means, you know the rules of Heaven, they can guide you.
Trigam Lake or Marsh above means it is a matter of social rules or surroundings. Your decisions define your place in them.